Bible Geek: Does the Book of Chronicles Whitewash David’s Life?


The book of Chronicles was known as “Events of Past Times” or “Acts of the Days” and was written around 520 or 530 BC, post exile by a Chronicler (perhaps Ezra or Nehemiah,) to remind the Israelites of the period of God’s favour and to encourage them to return to Jerusalem to rebuild a godly life. That is why the book can appear politically white washed, focussing less on sin, (except to warn of the deadly danger of idols and turning away from God again,) and focussing more on the good old days of David’ reign when everything was grand. It doesn’t dodge the issues of David’s sin, as these stories were already well known. Instead, the writer *gathers up “the threads of the old national life broken by the Captivity,” and shows the people that they can have their God and their nation back.

Major themes the book are centred around is Godly dominion over the people, righteous worship and obedience to the Covenant set out in the legal book of Deuteronomy. For that reason you will read a lot of detail about how the temple functioned and was set up. The books act as an instruction manual. Faith and hope and how the people of Isra’el belong to God (shown through the genealogies) are also main themes. The books were written using multiple historical documents and are considered accurate, solid historical Biblical canon without challenge, unlike the Song of Solomon, whose usefulness as Scripture has been hotly debated by both Judaism and Christianity throughout Church history.

Chronicles only talks about the the Kings of Judah as it is the Judean remnant that is being addressed. At this stage in history, the northern Kingdoms of Isra’el had long since been taken captive by the now overthrown Assyria, and there was a strong temptation for the people to retain their familiar lives in Babylon rather than step into the scary unknown. The land of milk and honey still waited for Israel to return, the people simply needed to be motivated to take it. [Ref: read the books of Ezra and Nehemiah for more on that period of Jewish history. It’s an amazing era which profoundly illustrates God’s undying mercy and love for His people, against the odds.]

A great deal of the book reiterates the content of 1 and 2 Kings, however there are chapters and verses which add to the picture we already see. It has a specific historical role and is loved by Bible scholars who like to focus on Godly leadership as it applies to our time. It has a lot to give, even without the books of Kings in the background to fill out the complete history.

I thoroughly recommend reading “Parallel Passages of the Historical Books” from the Companion Bible to help piece all the verses together. It takes in more than just Kings and Chronicles.

chronicles-whitewash white_spacer

From: *Easton Illustrated Dictionary:
The writer gathers up “the threads of the old national life broken by the Captivity.” The sources whence the chronicler compiled his work were public records, registers, and genealogical tables belonging to the Jews. These are referred to in the course of the book (1 Chr. 27:24; 29:29; 2 Chr. 9:29; 12:15; 13:22; 20:34; 24:27; 26:22; 32:32; 33:18, 19; 27:7; 35:25).

As compared with Samuel and Kings, the Book of Chronicles omits many particulars there recorded (2 Sam. 6:20-23; 9; 11; 14-19, etc.), and includes many things peculiar to itself (1 Chr. 12; 22; 23-26; 27; 28; 29, etc.). Twenty whole chapters, and twenty-four parts of chapters, are occupied with matter not found elsewhere. It also records many things in fuller detail, as (e.g.) the list of David’s heroes (1 Chr. 12:1-37), the removal of the ark from Kirjath-jearim to Mount Zion (1 Chr. 13; 15:2-24; 16:4-43; comp. 2 Sam. 6), Uzziah’s leprosy and its cause (2 Chr. 26:16-21; comp. 2 Kings 15:5), etc.

It has also been observed that another peculiarity of the book is that it substitutes modern and more common expressions for those that had then become unusual or obsolete. This is seen particularly in the substitution of modern names of places, such as were in use in the writer’s day, for the old names; thus Gezer (1 Chr. 20:4) is used instead of Gob (2 Sam. 21:18), etc. The Books of Chronicles are ranked among the khethubim or hagiographa. They are alluded to, though not directly quoted, in the New Testament (Heb. 5:4; Matt. 12:42; 23:35; Luke 1:5; 11:31, 51).


Further Helpful Reading


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Please note that this does NOT apply to any of the images on this site except for the free Psalm images which are marked as free. Most photos are purchased stock photos. It is ILLEGAL for you to take and use them, whether for yourself, commercially or for a non-profit venture such as a church or Bible Study. If you have not bought these photos from the source, the stock photography company has every right to sue you.


Succession, Sin and Subjugation: An Observation on the Eternal Consequences of Rejecting Theocratic Rule

From looking at the stories of various monarchs throughout history I have discovered that:

If you [the subjects,] repeatedly treat an ordinary person as a rock star, he will eventually begin to act with an inflated sense of entitlement.

If you repeatedly bow to someone with reverence, give them everything they ask for, fear challenging their will and esteem them on a much higher level than any person deserves or needs, you will produce a royal with an inflated ego, capable of abusing their position…

…and it will partially be your fault that they have done so.

ggIn the Netflix series “The Crown,” when Elisabeth’s father, King George VI dies, Elisabeth visits Buckingham Palace to *grieve her father and is confronted by the awful spectre of her mother and sister bowing to her as the new Monarch. She was utterly horrified, but forced to take it. It is one of the loneliest scenes I’ve ever watched in a drama and sadly, it is based on the truth. The British Royal family arrive, eat, and even open their Christmas presents – as a family – in a specific pecking order, with the Queen at the top. It is set etiquette which has been around for many generations and to us, it’s inhuman; but what must it be like for them? Would you like to live like that, with no freedom to reject etiquette and be yourself? The family pressure on Elisabeth to conform, let alone the political and cultural pressure, was not crushing, it was more like a slow, violent series of personality and independence-smashing shocks. I sincerely hope this dramatical portrayal of what she went through is wildly inaccurate, but it shows the institution of royalty from a perspective that is a strong contrast to the next monarch mentioned.

uguigiugKing David’s grandson, Rehoboam, is an example of the worst kind of monarch who was drunk with power rather than suffocated by it. He is everything that Samuel had warned the people about, and that generation of Israelites who demanded a king are directly responsible for this outcome which affected their great-grandchildren, (and technically responsible for later generations going into captivity, as they had set up a system which allowed godless kings to destroy Isra’el’s covenant with YHWH, their God. There is a big lesson there, in being careful what decisions you make.)

“Then King Rehoboam discussed the matter with the older men who had counselled his father, Solomon. “What is your advice?” he asked. “How should I answer these people?”
The older counsellors replied, “If you are willing to be a servant to these people today and give them a favourable answer, they will always be your loyal subjects.”
But Rehoboam rejected the advice of the older men and instead asked the opinion of the young men who had grown up with him and were now his advisers. “What is your advice?” he asked them. “How should I answer these people who want me to lighten the burdens imposed by my father?”
The young men replied, “This is what you should tell those complainers who want a lighter burden: ‘My little finger is thicker than my father’s waist! Yes, my father laid heavy burdens on you, but I’m going to make them even heavier! My father beat you with whips, but I will beat you with scorpions!’” 1 Kings 12

Making decisions that effect others is really easy when you live in privileged isolation, as you have no real idea of what you’ve done; you just feel the kick your ego gives you.

The distinction between a king and a commoner is massive and God never designed His Kingdom to be structured this way. The earlier Mesopotamian move towards placing kings in power condemned many generations of young men, in many cultures, to sinful, abnormal lives. They were given privileges that an egalitarian society would never permit, and paved the way to endless generations of men who perpetrates social injustices, as mankind’s psyche was not built to accommodate such excesses and certainly not without sufficient equals to balance the sanity equation. This is part of why I don’t believe Isra’el ever should have had kings.

Whenever you step outside of God’s plan for His people, you will generate massive sin. YHWH, “I AM,” the one true God of Isra’el, was the only One who was ever meant to be in a position of power over Isra’el, speaking through His prophets to the people and acting for the good of the community via His Levitical priesthood. When Isra’el rejected that system for worldly reasons, they opened themselves up to consequences which impacted every prince and king to come.

Gustave Doré - Doré's English Bible. Public Domain.

Solomon by Gustave Doré – Doré’s English Bible. Public Domain.

“Finally, all the elders of Isra’el met at Ramah to discuss the matter with Samuel. “Look,” they told him, “you are now old, and your sons are not like you. Give us a king to judge us like all the other nations have.” Samuel was displeased with their request and went to the LORD for guidance. “Do everything they say to you,” the LORD replied, “for it is me they are rejecting, not you. They don’t want me to be their king any longer. Ever since I brought them from Egypt they have continually abandoned me and followed other gods. And now they are giving you the same treatment. Do as they ask, but solemnly warn them about the way a king will reign over them.”

So Samuel passed on the LORD’s warning to the people who were asking him for a king. “This is how a king will reign over you,” Samuel said. “The king will draft your sons and assign them to his chariots and his charioteers, making them run before his chariots. Some will be generals and captains in his army, some will be forced to plow in his fields and harvest his crops, and some will make his weapons and chariot equipment. The king will take your daughters from you and force them to cook and bake and make perfumes for him. He will take away the best of your fields and vineyards and olive groves and give them to his own officials. He will take a tenth of your grain and your grape harvest and distribute it among his officers and attendants. He will take your male and female slaves and demand the finest of your cattle and donkeys for his own use. He will demand a tenth of your flocks, and you will be his slaves. When that day comes, you will beg for relief from this king you are demanding, but then the LORD will not help you.”
But the people refused to listen to Samuel’s warning. “Even so, we still want a king,” they said. “We want to be like the nations around us. Our king will judge us [not God] and lead us into battle.” 1 Samuel 8:4-20

Society behaves very oddly towards monarchs. The image of the court, crown, castle, princesses, princes, chivalry, and wealth are romanticised and spoken of longingly in many, many fairy tales and works of fiction, while in reality, we hate the dictatorship and social inequality that being ruled brings. It is very easy to be a royal basher, but over time I have tried hard to find the humanity in people we don’t really see as human and understand their story, which was how I wound up watching The Crown. That series made me realise that behind the emotionless face of Queen Elisabeth is a woman who has been through an awful lot and for all the wealth and fame, she has so little freedom. It also makes me think about what David sacrificed to be King, and it causes me to wonder more about the generations that came after him and why so many were godless (aside from the obvious answer being greed.)

If we could go back in time and stop that first king in Mesopotamia from being crowned, we’d have to go to many places in many points in time, and stop the equivalent from happening. Mankind understandably wants security and good leadership, but the price that has been paid in power battles, wars, destroyed lives and peasant’s poverty is grossly appalling. If only we’d look only to the Lord as leader… life would be so much better and history would have been far more interesting.

Please also read, Did God Want a King for Isra’el?


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The King David Project by Cate Russell-Cole is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0).
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at

Please note that this does NOT apply to any of the images on this site except for the free Psalm images which are marked as free. Most photos are purchased stock photos. It is ILLEGAL for you to take and use them, whether for yourself, commercially or for a non-profit venture such as a church or Bible Study. If you have not bought these photos from the source, the stock photography company has every right to sue you.

Bible Geek: Getting Your Facts Straight


If you ever try and learn a topic – any topic – from just one point of view, you are in trouble. You will make mistakes that you don’t even know you have made, and that can lead to you looking somewhat silly.

One of the pleasures of formal study is that I get to raid University libraries and access information I don’t usually find anywhere else. However, I am often surprised at how badly the Bible is represented, whether it be by secular institutions or theological colleges. I have found the only way to understand David is to read, read, read and read: and that best includes studying archaeology, psychology, secular history, Jewish thought and customs and reading multiple Bible versions.

Here are a few one sided blunders which have made me go, “wow, you need to research more!” I am NOT putting them in to belittle the sources, but to remind you to study and be careful. The mistakes I have to go back and fix constantly humble me. We have to be responsible with the word of God. Differences in opinions are one thing, but bad research is quite another.

1. A particular version of the Bible, which paraphrases rather than going for a literal translation, likes to translate “David commanded” rather than “David said,” as all the others do. When you read “David commanded” several times in a chapter, he begins to look like a tyrant, throwing his weight around. I double checked the Hebrew. The correct translation was ‘said.’ Use a service like Bible Hub which allows you to check word use from many translations on one page.


The House of David

2. A secular university, which will also remain nameless for reasons pertaining to slander and legalities, did a series on the Old Testament where they treated the Bible as they would treat any piece of literature: as an isolated, stand alone work. They had no understanding of the culture of ancient Israel or tribal values; they had no spiritual interest or interpretation, which was to be expected. The result was they took two pieces of Scripture with “the house of David” in them and came to conclusions which were so crazy off the bat, I was stunned. Had it been a lecture on physics, psychology or any discipline, facts would have been checked to ensure accuracy. But hey, it’s a mystical book, so no background research was done.

3. A Bible College principal on Youtube preached that Absalom’s hair was so heavy, because he sprinkled gold dust in it every day. This information came from the Roman “historian” Flavius Josephus, who was not an accurate source of information and the principal should have known that. Josephus has been accused of “exaggeration, inconsistency and sloppiness and corrupt transmission of names and numbers,” and the information he does get correct seems to be sourced from research he did with Roman archival data. Even books which publish his work directly address his errors in their introductions. [Sources: Century One and if you search for Josephus and error, you will get many, many results. He has a terrible reputation for anti-semitic bias as well.]

20150109_105710The cost of sprinkling gold in your hair (and the itch) does not appear to be practical. It seems that this is an area where you need to use some common sense. He also claimed that King David had an Egyptian like burial, which David simply would not have done. It was not in line with his beliefs, which are apparent in the Psalms, but that is a topic for another day… Orthodox Jewish women do wear wigs as a sign of modesty, but the Torah forbids men to dress as women, as that was undertaken in strange, pagan rituals, where processing worshippers dressed as half men, half women.


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The King David Project by Cate Russell-Cole is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0).
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at

Please note that this does NOT apply to any of the images on this site except for the free Psalm images which are marked as free. Most photos are purchased stock photos. It is ILLEGAL for you to take and use them, whether for yourself, commercially or for a non-profit venture such as a church or Bible Study. If you have not bought these photos from the source, the stock photography company has every right to sue you.

Why The Bible Doesn’t Work As A Mythological Tale: King David

By Majumwo CC4.0 Licence

By Majumwo CC4.0 Licence

David fits the image of a hero. He potentially makes the perfect epic poetry type hero and his life does fit a perfect story arc. Does that make his life likely to be a fictional tale, or embellishment on the actual life of a man named David who was a King? Where does Scripture not fit myth?

While we associate non-Christians as being the ones who are the most likely to label Biblical truth as a moral tale or embellished story, Christians can also be found doing the same, as they do not believe that the Bible is the literal truth, or because the thinking of the world has affected them. Some of the saddest and most judgemental teachings I have seen on David’s life have come through theologians who are not saved, but have studied critical theology as an intellectual interest and have published books which don’t show any dedication to the spiritual character of Christianity. Thus they feel able to tear Biblical figures apart without mercy, and assign interpretations to Biblical events which aren’t in line with either the message or the sanctity of the Word.

For example, “King David His Reign Revisited,” by David L Wright. His work is written from a limited, biased standpoint, which is not in line with either the Jewish or Hebrew faiths. Wright teaches at Emory University as Associate Professor of the Hebrew Bible and has won awards for previous books. In his own words: “I enrolled in one of Reinhard Kratz’s seminars in which we analyzed the formation of the Sinai account in Exodus and its relation to Deuteronomy. In the very first session I realized how extraordinary biblical literature is and how fascinating it is to study it critically.”

“Most PhD students often have personal histories that prompted them to devote their lives to biblical studies. Nevertheless, these students usually know how to set aside, pragmatically, their personal religious convictions in order to create a space conducive to discussions with their colleagues who come from different backgrounds and have different commitments.” [Source:]

How sad it is that you can study the Word of God in such depth, and not let it touch your spirit.

In 2015 I wrote a blog post “Dames, Daggers and Dance: When History Forms It’s Own Perfect Story Arc” which looked at David’s life through the eyes of a story teller. I have been a writer since I was a child, and have always studied writing techniques. When studying David, I was surprised to see that the total accounts of his life form a story arc. It made me wonder, whether the concept of the story arc was built on literature or reality? However, it did not make me wonder whether David’s life was a fabricated legend and here’s why.

David’s life just doesn’t work as a story. Here is a short list as to why, based on the many frustrations I’ve gone through in studying David’s life.

  • Only the highlights and most necessary cautionary incidents, (useful for moral spiritual instruction,) have been told. It is like reading a biography retold in badly summarised dot points. There are far too many details missing which make parts hard to interpret and lead to heated debates. So much critical information about him is missing or unclear, I have nearly given up study in frustration several times. Trying to get a clear picture of key incidents is nearly impossible.
  • Pinpointing exactly when things happened, in what year and what age, is impossible, as is the correct order of events in 2 Samuel chapters 10-12 and 2 Samuel 23 to 24. Big events are written back to back, with no orientation as to how old David was, or how much time had passed. This is especially true of the Psalms.
  • You can only work out David’s motivations by going back to the Torah and carefully studying Leviticus and Deuteronomy in detail (preferably the whole Torah); then by going forward to the Psalms and fitting it all together in a cultural context… which also has to be researched outside of the Bible, to understand the history and culture. In a story, you are told what someone’s motivation is and why they act how they do.
  • The books of Samuel have multiple authors and David’s story is completed in 1 Kings (written by yet another author,) and reiterated as more of a political tale in 1 Chronicles by yet, another author. That fracturing blasts apart the possibility of it being written as an allegory.
  • It’s missing traditional narrative roles (such as ally and trickster), the people needed to push the tale forward into the next part,or give it more relatability. Also, God could fit many of the standard character roles, as David was close to Him, was helped by Him and powered by Him. That messes up the standard way deities are bought into legends.
  • David isn’t the hero of his life story, God is, which is not a normal format. Readers want the key figure to be either a hero, or an anti-hero. David hands all the glory to God and constantly points people to Him to meet all their needs. [2 Samuel 22-23]
  • If you use Joseph Campbell’s monomyth (The Hero With a Thousand Faces), it doesn’t fit good story telling structure for an epic tale. Campbell wrote his book based on the way legends have been recorded since the beginning of time, from every culture able to be studied. I have tried to fit David’s life into that structure, and it won’t mould in, in too many places. I couldn’t even take specific events and get them to form that iconic structure. For example, refusal of the call (David never did that); then the last seven stages don’t apply, as David never returns home with the prize, going back to normal life, and there is no clear point of single victory. It is also interesting to note that David is not mentioned in Campbell’s book as one of the studies legends. There is only an image of David and Goliath. I was sure he would be in there, but he’s not.


a) The most complete chronicle in David’s life is “David and Goliath,” which has become an iconic symbol in both faith, and the secular world. It neatly unwinds and then wraps up, but few other anecdotes from David’s life do. David’s greatest achievements are making the nation of Isra’el safe from it’s enemies and the building of the first temple. The remaining details of Isra’el’s journey to national safety are slim. You cannot recreate complete, engaging battle scenes and pinpoint a proper timeline of who, when and where, in the manner in which movies like Star Wars are made. We know a little about David’s achievements as a warrior, and a little about Benaiah, and a little about Joab, and a little about many characters… but not enough to build one complete character who we can understand. The Bible is just not meant to read as a legendary epic set of tales. It’s an historical account with greatly limited information.

Bathsheba by Francesco Salviati CC04 Licenced

By Francesco Salviati CC04 Licenced

b) As for David’s actions in returning of the Ark of the Covenant to the midst of the nation and the plans for building Israel’s temple, this part of his life is impossible to understand without knowing the full history of Israel up until this point, and studying the way surrounding nations worshipped at that time… then to top that off, the long timeline of related events has a deeply unsatisfying ending.

In 2 Samuel 5-7 we can see how much David wants to build the temple and has it planned and prepared down to the last detail… then it doesn’t happen until he is dead. Why? Because he obeys God… and we don’t know what he is obeying unless we pick the account which starts in 2 Samuel 6 up in 1 Chronicles 22. Did you know that David gave his personal wealth over to help fund the temple? Probably not, because the complete set of details are scattered, and is hard work to put together and then correctly interpret. The story doesn’t story.

c) As a final illustration of why David doesn’t fit together as a work of fiction, we need to look at David and Bathsheba. Again it is hampered by a lack of information. Arguments rage as to whether she baited him, or he took advantage of an innocent young girl. To make that incident work as a proper tale, you need clearer and more content, plus, to make David and Bathsheba work as a single piece of fiction, you need more elements to make a proper story and cohesively pull all the summary into a readable work.

The prophet Nathan called David out his sin, but he’d need a far greater role as a mentor. And where is David or Bathsheba’s best friend / sidekick to help move the tale along? The ambiguities which lead to heated accusations of rape would not be there. Every detail, including a clearer picture of David’s thoughts and motivation would be included. Including literary devices such as Solomon’s style of poetry in the Song of Songs would help too, but that does not exist. What we do have is an incident from David’s life which teaches us consequences. It is not meant to be romanticised and to do so, is to disrespect the intention the Word of God has in telling us about Bathsheba.

David is real, raw, flawed, inspirational, conflicted and cohesive, or in other words, as complicated as any human, which is why we relate to him. If you looked at any of our life stories, they would be just as muddied, hard to follow and complex. From the point of view of a fiction writer and a Christian, David reinforces my belief that the Bible is God’s inspired Word, not a man-made collection of religious propaganda.

“Therefore I will give thanks to You, O LORD, among the nations,
And I will sing praises to Your name.
He is a tower of deliverance to His king,
And shows lovingkindness to His anointed,
To David and his descendants forever.” 2 Samuel 22:50-51

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Please note that this does NOT apply to any of the images on this site except for the free Psalm images which are marked as free. Most photos are purchased stock photos. It is ILLEGAL for you to take and use them, whether for yourself, commercially or for a non-profit venture such as a church or Bible Study. If you have not bought these photos from the source, the stock photography company has every right to sue you.

How to Study and Understand the Life of King David

Psalm33v11David is not easy to study. While many of us have met him initially as an inspirational Bible story, when you start to delve into the details of his life and try and understand his actions, the going gets tough.

I have found a great deal of misinformation and rumour, plus a lack of simple resources, which is why I started this project. There is so much detail and not enough detail! Explanations are housed in words which are easily missed in the text; plus as chapters sit end to end, timing is lost.

Plus there is another annoyance to navigate: during the millennial reign of Christ on Earth (the second coming as covered in Revelation 20 etc.), David will again reign over Isra’el, taking away from the forces of darkness, one of their favourite play things. Look at the news on Isra’el and you will see the turmoil the nation it is always in. Isra’el is a focal battleground between good and evil, thus the enemy has invested a great deal of time in discrediting it’s returning ruler through claims of rape, homosexuality, lust and the inappropriate use of power.


So, how do we get to the bottom of David’s story and use his life experiences to forge a closer walk between ourselves and the Lord? Here are the lessons I have learnt.

1. Read through 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 Kings 1, and 1 Chronicles slowly and as many times as you can. You will also find that Bible Hub’s free online interlinear Bible will ‘save your bacon!’ It has cleared up many misunderstandings for me. You can access it here, plus the Hub has many versions of the Bible so you can compare the different ways individual verses have been interpreted from Hebrew roots.

2. When you want to understand where David’s heart was at, you must go to the Psalms. They provide the essential, human balance to the historical narratives of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles.

3. Be familiar with the Laws delivered by Moses in Deuteronomy and Leviticus. Without understanding these, you’re sunk. In those books the enemies of God are stated, as are all the rules that David was expected to uphold. They will also explain the culture and tabernacle.

4. Don’t forget to add psychology! I see many theological points of view which completely forget that David was a loving father, a husband and a grieving human. You need to look at him through the eyes of a parent, husband and human… not only as a theological example of spiritual premises.

5. Learn as much as you can about how Isra’el developed as a nation from Abraham onwards. Then you will get the bigger picture of how David was pivotal to the nation’s development. I also found it helpful to research the other Kings of Judah, particularly the righteous ones, to see how they compared to David.

6. When you listen to anyone (including me) talk about David, go back to the Bible and check your facts! You would not believe the masses and masses of silly mistakes I have seen through other’s work. It’s easy to mix up names, jump to conclusions about timing and to attribute ideals held by our culture to an old world where they just don’t fit! Love everyone, judge no one, but go back to the Lord and the Word of God and check, check, check!

Creative Commons Image Buchblätter_004

Creative Commons Image

7. Give yourself plenty of time. It is not enough to go to a commentary or do a little research online and have the story straight. (See point 6.) The biggest errors I have found are on opinion web sites that look like they are theologically sound. I am still fixing misunderstandings on tiny details that I have made, so none of us is perfect. It’s a process that needs patience. Initially this site was to be a book in which I allowed eighteen months of research. The more I learn, the more I realise that eighteen months is not enough.

8. Don’t presume the entire content of any commentary reference book is correct. Some were written pre Isra’el becoming a nation, so they are prophetically outdated. I have seen a commentary on 1 Kings written with an overt bias against David. Other authors sometimes rely on the research of people who have gone before them, which is great, except errors in understanding and details can be easily passed down that way. If you check the Bible and ask the Lord for wisdom, you’ll soon find the truth.

9. Do not judge. Not David, not anyone whose work you are reading or listening to: no one, dead or alive. The Lord commands this. If you see a mistake, bless them and move on!
~ Luke 6:37: “Do not judge others, and you will not be judged. Do not condemn others, or it will all come back against you. Forgive others, and you will be forgiven.”
~ Matthew 7:2: “For with whatever judgment you judge, you will be judged; and with whatever measure you measure, it will be measured to you.”
~ Luke 6:37: “Don’t judge, and you won’t be judged. Don’t condemn, and you won’t be condemned. Set free, and you will be set free.”

10. Read as many different points of view as you can and study the background culture.

For more help, visit the Project’s web site:

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Please note that this does NOT apply to any of the images on this site except for the free Psalm images which are marked as free. Most photos are purchased stock photos. It is ILLEGAL for you to take and use them, whether for yourself, commercially or for a non-profit venture such as a church or Bible Study. If you have not bought these photos from the source, the stock photography company has every right to sue you.